It is an agreement between the Developer and the Local Authority to design and use local authority-approved equipment and processes to adopt the new street lighting onto their network once the project is completed.
To obtain approval from a local authority the S278 street lighting design needs to consider the existing lighting and equipment that it is tieing into. This means it is essential to look at and assess if the existing lighting is in good working order and suitable to be used to aid in the design or it will need replacing and upgrading to the latest specification. It is also good practice for the design to see any Hazard that may affect their design. Using an online street view is not acceptable due to the inconsistency of the images and impaired viewing angles.
The best way is to design it out at the start of the project looking at luminaire placement, dimming and using light shields in sensitive areas. If the column and luminaire are already installed, it is best to see if the luminaire can be dimmed in non-peak hours(safely), or use an external backlight shield either fitted to the column or fitted with the column luminaire.
This is very hard to define as different species have different sensitivities and habits to each other. But as general good practice minimising spill on to green habitat to under 1 lux is acceptable. In areas that are highly sensitive and have been identified as protecting, special measures need to be used to reduce spill levels to as low as possible. Good lighting design is key.
A typical spacing does not really exist anymore with regard to modern LED street lighting, due to the variety of optics and lumen outputs of LED luminaires. A Lighting Design can be optimised to achieve the project objectives, if this is a high uniform light level then spacings may be closer together, if it is just to achieve the desired Standard Ie BS5489 then the design can be optimised to larger spacings to save energy by reducing the amount of luminaire needed and reduce install cost, while still being to standard.
Warmer colour temperatures such as 3000k 2700k are preferred when there are concerns about wildlife.
From a design point of view No, as the development of an innovative original idea can produce more than one unique “patentable” feature, making for a stronger patent. Also, the patent would have to be amended or another application made which would cost more money. Having a patent before a design process can sometimes constrain the design process.
You need a CAD model of the Object, this can come from 3D modelling or 3D scanning an object. Typical file formats are STL, STEP and 3D DWG, and SLDPRT. Either way, you need a Digital representation of the part. This is then processed in a 3D printing software which turns the model into machine code. If you don’t have these files you will need a designer or a CAD engineer to create them for you.